دانلود کتاب مکانیسم مرحله به مرحله واکنش های شیمی آلی ویرایش دوم

5,900 تومان

  • ویرایش: 2
  • نویسنده: Michael Edenborough
  • تعداد صفحات: 517 صفحه
  • حجم فایل: 5.07 مگابایت
  • فرمت: PDF

توضیحات

دانلود کتاب مکانیسم مرحله به مرحله واکنش های شیمی آلی ویرایش دوم

کتاب مکانیسم مرحله به مرحله واکنش های شیمی آلی ویرایش 2 دوم با عنوان Organic Reaction Mechanisms: A Step by Step Approach, Second Edition 2nd Edition نوشته و تالیف Michael Edenborough یکی از بهترین کتاب های تخصصی و مرجع شیمی آلی در زمینه نوشتن مکانیسم واکنش های شیمی آلی و یادگیری مرحله به مرحله مکانیسم آن ها می باشد. این کتاب با توضیحات جامع و کامل خود توانسته جایگاه خوبی در بین دانشجویان و اساتید شیمی در مبحث نوشتن مکانیسم واکنش های شیمی آلی پیدا کند.

 

مشخصات کتاب

  • عنوان کتاب:  Organic Reaction Mechanisms: A Step by Step Approach
  • فرمت فایل: PDF با کیفیت بالا
  • حجم فایل فشرده: 5.07 مگابایت
  • ویرایش: 1
  • زبان نوشتاری: انگلیسی
  • نویسنده: Michael Edenborough
  • تعداد صفحات کتاب: 517 صفحه
  • تعداد فصل ها: 23 فصل
  • نحوه دریافت : دانلود فوری و آنی لینک دانلود فایل بعد از پرداخت

 

فهرست مطالب و عناوین فصل های کتاب

Part I: Basic Principles 1
1 Introduction 3
1.1 The aims of this book 3
1.2 What is organic chemistry? 4
1.3 Organic synthesis 5
1.4 Organic mechanisms 6
1.5 Two examples 6
1.6 The structure of this book 11
2 Electron Counting 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Atoms 13
2.3 Uncharged molecules 19
2.4 Molecules with whole charges 22
2.5 Summary of electron counting 31
3 Bond Polarisation and Fission 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Partially charged species 35
3.3 Bond fission 39
3.4 Isolated multiple bonds 42
3.5 Conjugated multiple bonds 46
3.6 Summary of bond polarisation and fission 51
4 Shapes of Molecules 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Types of bonding 54
4.3 Tetrahedral geometry 56
4.4 Trigonal planar geometry 62
4.5 Linear geometry 68
4.6 Further examples 70
4.7 Summary of shapes of molecules 76
5 Stabilisation of Charged Species 79
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Inductive effects 80
5.2.1 Charged hydrocarbon species 80
5.2.2 Charged non-hydrocarbon species 85
5.3 Mesomeric effects 85
5.3.1 Charged hydrocarbon species 85
5.3.2 Charged non-hydrocarbon species 88
5.4 Degree of s orbital character 92
5.5 d orbital involvement 93
5.6 Aromatic character 94
5.7 Hydrogen bonding 98
5.8 Steric effects 99
5.9 Summary of stabilisation of charged species 101
6 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Effects 103
6.1 Introduction 103
6.2 Thermodynamic effects 105
6.2.1 General considerations 105
6.2.2 Enthalpy effects 107
6.2.3 Entropy effects 110
6.3 Kinetic effects 111
6.3.1 Forcing reactions 111
6.3.2 Ring formation 113
6.3.3 Abstraction of protons 115
6.4 Catalysis 116
6.4.1 General considerations 116
6.4.2 Acid/base catalysis 117
6.5 Summary of thermodynamic and kinetic effects 118
7 Acid/Base Characteristics
7.1 Introduction 121
7.2 Definitions of acids and bases 122
7.2.1 Arrhenius 122
7.2.2 Brönsted-Lowry 122
7.2.3 Lewis 129
7.2.4 Cady-Elsey 130
7.3 Electrophilic and nucleophilic properties 131
7.4 External factors 134
7.5 Summary of acid/base characteristics 136
Part II: Mechanisms 139
8 Introduction to Mechanisms 141
8.1 Preliminary considerations 141
8.2 Summary of introduction to mechanisms 143
9 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions 145
9.1 Introduction 145
9.2 Substitution at a saturated carbon 146
9.2.1 Introduction 146
9.2.2 Unimolecular substitution 148
9.2.3 Bimolecular substitution 152
9.2.4 Intramolecular substitution 157
9.2.5 Formation and cleavage of three-membered rings 161
9.3 Substitution at an unsaturated carbon 164
9.3.1 SN1 mechanism 164
9.3.2 SN2 mechanism 165
9.3.3 Tetrahedral mechanism 165
9.3.4 Ester hydrolysis 167
9.4 Summary of nucleophilic substitution reactions 170
10 Electrophilic Substitution Reactions 175
10.1 Introduction 175
10.2 Aromatic substitution 176
10.2.1 Arenium ion mechanism 176
10.2.2 Orientation and reactivity of monosubstituted benzene rings 181
10.2.3 Ortho/para ratio 184
10.2.4 Multiple substitutions 186
10.3 Aliphatic substitution 187
10.4 Summary of electrophilic substitution reactions 191
11 Radical Substitution Reactions 195
11.1 Introduction 195
11.2 Photochlorination of methane
11.3 Reactivity and structure 200
11.4 Neighbouring group assistance 203
11.5 Further examples of radical reactions 204
11.6 Summary of radical substitution reactions 211
12 Addition Reactions to Carbon/Carbon Multiple Bonds 213
12.1 Introduction 213
12.2 Cyclic addition 215
12.2.1 Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation 215
12.2.2 Other syn-addition reactions 216
12.2.3 Pericyclic reactions 218
12.3 Electrophilic addition 222
12.3.1 Addition of a symmetrical molecule 222
12.3.2 Rate of addition 228
12.3.3 Orientation of addition 230
12.3.4 Some other electrophilic additions 233
12.4 Radical addition 236
12.5 Nucleophilic addition 237
12.6 Conjugate addition 239
12.7 Summary of addition reactions to carbon/carbon multiple bonds 242
13 Addition Reactions to Carbon/Oxygen Double Bonds 245
13.1 Introduction 245
13.2 Structure and reactivity 245
13.3 Hydration 248
13.4 Other addition reactions 251
13.5 Addition of carbon nucleophiles 254
13.5.1 Cyanide, alkynyl and alkyl anions 254
13.5.2 Carbonyl stabilised carbon anions 256
13.6 Stereochemical consequences 264
13.7 Conjugate addition 266
13.8 Summary of addition reactions to carbon/oxygen double bonds 267
14 Elimination Reactions 271
14.1 Introduction 271
14.2 Bimolecular 1,2-elimination reactions 273
14.2.1 Anti-elimination reactions 273
14.2.2 Syn-elimination reactions 280
14.3 Unimolecular 1,2-elimination reactions 282
14.4 1,1-Elimination reactions 287
14.5 Pyrolytic elimination reactions
14.6 γ-Elimination and extrusion reactions 291
14.7 Summary of elimination reactions 292
15 Sequential Addition/Elimination Reactions 297
15.1 Introduction 297
15.2 Addition/elimination reactions 298
15.2.1 Carbon/carbon double bonds 298
15.2.2 Carbon/oxygen double bonds 300
15.3 Elimination/addition reactions 305
15.4 Summary of sequential addition/elimination reactions 307
16 Rearrangement and Fragmentation Reactions 309
16.1 Introduction 309
16.2 Carbon/carbon rearrangements 310
16.2.1 Allylic rearrangements 310
16.2.2 Whitmore 1,2-shifts 312
16.3 Carbon/nitrogen rearrangements 318
16.4 Carbon/oxygen rearrangements 321
16.5 Fragmentation reactions 322
16.6 Summary of rearrangement and fragmentation reactions 325
17 Redox Reactions 329
17.1 Introduction 329
17.2 Reduction reactions 330
17.2.1 Electron donors 330
17.2.2 Hydride anion donors 334
17.3 Oxidation reactions 336
17.4 Disproportionation reactions 341
17.5 Summary of redox reactions 344
Part III: Appendices 347
18 Glossary 349
19 Abbreviations 399
19.1 Atomic, group and molecular abbreviations 399
19.2 Mechanistic abbreviations 401
19.3 Reaction type abbreviations 403
20 Molecular Notations 405
20.1 Non-structural notations 405
20.1.1 Empirical formula 405
20.1.2 Molecular formula
20.2 Two-dimensional structural notations 406
20.2.1 Dot and cross 406
20.2.2 Line notation 407
20.2.3 Expanded line notation 408
20.2.4 Stick notation 409
20.2.5 Two-dimensional skeletal notation 409
20.3 Three-dimensional structural notations 412
20.3.1 Haworth notation 412
20.3.2 Three-dimensional skeletal notation 412
20.3.3 Stereo projection 413
20.3.4 Sawhorse projection 414
20.3.5 Newman projection 415
20.3.6 Fischer projection 415
21 Stereochemical Terminology 417
21.1 Introduction 417
21.2 Structural isomerism 418
21.2.1 Skeletal isomerism 420
21.2.2 Positional isomerism 421
21.2.3 Functional isomerism 423
21.2.4 Tautomeric isomerism 423
21.2.5 Meta isomerism 424
21.3 Stereoisomerism 425
21.3.1 Optical isomerism 427
21.3.2 Geometrical isomerism 432
21.3.3 Conformers 436
22 Oxidation Numbers 441
22.1 Introduction 441
22.2 Oxidation numbers in ionic species 441
22.3 Oxidation numbers in covalent species 443
23 Skeletal Index 447
23.1 Hydrocarbon compounds 447
23.2 Oxygen containing compounds 452
23.3 Nitrogen containing compounds 459
23.4 Nitrogen and oxygen containing compounds 465
23.5 Sulphur containing compounds 470
23.6 Phosphorus containing compounds

دیدگاهها

هیچ دیدگاهی برای این محصول نوشته نشده است.

اولین نفری باشید که دیدگاهی را ارسال می کنید برای “دانلود کتاب مکانیسم مرحله به مرحله واکنش های شیمی آلی ویرایش دوم”

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

*

code