دانلود کتاب اصول شیمی محیط زیست استانلی ماناهان ویرایش 2

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 اصول شیمی محیط زیست استانلی ماناهان ویرایش دوم

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دانلود کتاب اصول شیمی محیط زیست استانلی ماناهان ویرایش 2

کتاب اصول و مبانی شیمی محیط زیست نوشته و تالیف استانلی ماناهان ویرایش 2 دوم Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry 2nd Edition by Stanley E. Manahan از کتاب های مرجع و تخصصی در زمینه شیمی محیط زیست برای دانشجویان و اساتید شیمی می باشد.

 

مشخصات کتاب

  • عنوان کتاب: Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry
  • فرمت فایل: PDF 
  • حجم فایل فشرده: 6.74 مگابایت
  • ویرایش: 2
  • زبان نوشتاری: انگلیسی
  • نویسنده: Stanley E. Manahan
  • تعداد صفحات کتاب: 993 صفحه
  • تعداد فصل ها: 14 فصل
  • نحوه دریافت : دانلود فوری و آنی فایل بعد از پرداخت

 

 

فهرست مطالب و عناوین کتاب اصول شیمی محیط زیست

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

1.1 Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry

1.2 A Mini-Course in Chemistry

1.3 The Building Blocks of Matter

1.4 Chemical Bonds and Compounds

1.5 Chemical Reactions and Equations

1.6 Numbers in Chemistry: Exponential notation

1.7 Significant Figures and Uncertainties in Numbers

1.8 Measurement and Systems of Measurement

1.9 Units of Mass

1.10 Units of Length

1.11 Units of Volume

1.12 Temperature, Heat, and Energy

1.13 Pressure

1.14 Units and Their Use in Calculations

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 2 MATTER AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

2.1 What is Matter?

2.2 Classification of Matter

2.3 Quantity of Matter: the Mole

2.4 Physical Properties of Matter

2.5 States of Matter

2.6 Gases

2.7 Liquids and Solutions

2.8 Solids

2.9 Thermal properties

2.10 Separation and Characterization of Matter

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 3 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

3.1 Atoms and Elements

3.2 The Atomic Theory

3.3 Subatomic Particles

3.4 The Basic Structure of the Atom

3.5 Development of the Periodic Table

3.6 Hydrogen, the Simplest Atom

3.7 Helium, the First Atom With a Filled Electron Shell

3.8 Lithium, the First Atom With BothInner and Outer Electrons

3.9 The Second Period, Elements 4–10

3.10 Elements 11–20, and Beyond

3.11 A More Detailed Look at Atomic Structure

3.12 Quantum and Wave Mechanical Models of Electrons in Atoms

3.13 Energy Levels of Atomic Orbitals

3.14 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

3.15 Electron Configuration

3.16 Electrons in the First 20 Elements

3.17 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Chapter Summary

Table of Elements

CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL BONDS, MOLECULES, AND COMPOUNDS

4.1 Chemical Bonds and Compound Formation

4.2 Chemical Bonding and the Octet Rule

4.3 Ionic Bonding

4.4 Fundamentals of Covalent Bonding

4.5 Covalent Bonds in Compounds

4.6 Some Other Aspects of Covalent Bonding

4.7 Chemical Formulas of Compounds

4.8 The Names of Chemical Compounds

4.9 Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 5 CHEMICAL REACTIONS, EQUATIONS, AND STOICHIOMETRY

5.1 The Sentences of Chemistry

5.2 The Information in a Chemical Equation

5.3 Balancing Chemical Equations

5.4 Will a Reaction Occur?

5.5 How Fast Does a Reaction Go?

5.6 Classification of Chemical Reactions

5.7 Quantitative Information from Chemical Reactions

5.8 What is Stoichiometry and Why is it Important?

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 6 ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS

6.1 The Importance of Acids, Bases, and Salts

6.2 The Nature of Acids, Bases, and Salts

6.3 Conductance of Electricity by Acids, Bases, and Salts in Solution

6.4 Dissociation of Acids and Bases in Water

6.5 The Hydrogen Ion Concentration and Buffers

6.6 pH and the Relationship Between Hydrogen Ion and Hydroxide Ion

Concentrations

6.7 Preparation of Acids

6.8 Preparation of Bases

6.9 Preparation of Salts

6.10 Acid Salts and Basic Salts

6.11 Names of Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 7 SOLUTIONS

7.1 What are Solutions? Why are they Important?

7.2 Solvents

7.3 Water—A Unique Solvent

7.4 The Solution Process and Solubility

7.5 Solution Concentrations

7.6 Standard Solutions and Titrations

7.7 Physical Properties of Solutions

7.8 Solution Equilibria

7.9 Colloidal Suspensions

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 8 CHEMISTRY AND ELECTRICITY

8.1 Chemistry and Electricity

8.2 Oxidation and Reduction

8.3 Oxidation-Reduction in Solution

8.4 The Dry Cell

8.5 Storage Batteries

8.6 Using Electricity to Make Chemical Reactions Occur

8.7 Electroplating

8.8 Fuel Cells

8.9 Solar Cells

8.10 Reaction Tendency

8.11 Effect of Concentration: Nernst Equation

8.12 Natural Water Purification Processes

8.13 Water Reuse and Recycling

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 9 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

9.1 Organic Chemistry

9.2 Hydrocarbons

9.3 Organic Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

9.4 Synthetic Polymers

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

10.1 Biochemistry

10.2 Biochemistry and the Cell

10.3 Proteins

10.4 Carbohydrates

10.5 Lipids

10.6 Enzymes

10.7 Nucleic Acids

10.8 Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

10.9 Metabolic Processes

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF WATER

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Properties of Water, a Unique Substance

11.3 Sources and Uses of Water: the Hydrologic Cycle

11.4 The Characteristics of Bodies of Water

11.5 Aquatic Chemistry

11.6 Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere

11.7 Metal Ions and Calcium in Water

11.8 Oxidation-Reduction

11.9 Complexation and Chelation

11.10 Water Interactions with Other Phases

11.11 Aquatic Life

11.12 Bacteria

11.13 Microbially Mediated Elemental Transistions and Cycles

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 12 WATER POLLUTION

12.1 Nature and Types of Water Pollutants

12.2 Elemental Pollutants

12.3 Heavy Metal

12.4 Metalloid

12.5 Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids

12.6 Inorganic Species

12.7 Algal Nutrients and Eutrophications

12.8 Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity

12.9 Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants

12.10 Organic Pollutants

12.11 Pesticides in Water

12.12 Polychlorinated Biphenyls

12.13 Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 13 WATER TREATMENT

13.1 Water Treatment and Water Use

13.2 Municipal Water Treatment

13.3 Treatment of Water For Industrial Use

13.4 Sewage Treatment

13.5 Industrial Wastewater Treatment

13.6 Removal of Solids

13.7 Removal of Calcium and Other Metals

13.8 Removal of Dissolved Organics

13.9 Removal of Dissolved Inorganics

13.10 Sludge

13.11 Water Disinfection

13.12 Natural Water Purification Processes

13.13 Water Reuse and Recycling

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 14 THE ATMOSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

14.1 The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Chemistry

14.2 Importance of the Atmosphere

14.3 Physical Characteristics of the Atmosphere

14.4 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

14.5 Atmospheric Mass Transfer, Meteorology, and Weather

14.6 Inversions and Air Pollution

14.7 Global Climate and Microclimate

14.8 Chemical and Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere

14.9 Acid–Base Reactions in the Atmosphere

14.10 Reactions of Atmospheric Oxygen

14.11 Reactions of Atmospheric Nitrogen

14.12 Atmospheric Water

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 15 INORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Particles in the Atmosphere

15.3 The Composition of Inorganic Particles

15.4 Effects of Particles

15.5 Control of Particulate Emissions

15.6 Carbon Oxides

15.7 Sulfur Dioxide Sources and the Sulfur Cycle

15.8 Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere

15.9 Acid Rain

15.10 Fluorine, Chlorine, and their Gaseous Compounds

15.11 Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbonyl Sulfide, and Carbon Disulfide

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 16 ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG

16.1 Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

16.2 Organic Compounds from Natural Sources

16.3 Pollutant Hydrocarbons

16.4 Nonhydrocarbon Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

16.5 Photochemical Smog

16.6 Smog-Forming Automotive Emissions

16.7 Smog-Forming Reactions of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

16.8 Mechanisms of Smog Formation

16.9 Inorganic Products from Smog

16.10 Effects of Smog

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 17 THE GEOSPHERE AND GEOCHEMISTRY

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Nature of Solids in the Geosphere

17.3 Physical Form of the Geosphere

17.5 Clays

17.6 Geochemistry

17.7 Groundwater in the Geosphere

17.8 Environmental Aspects of the Geosphere

17.9 Earthquakes

17.10 Volcanoes

17.11 Surface Earth Movement

17.12 Stream and River Phenomena

17.13 Phenomena at the Land/Ocean Interface

17.14 Phenomena at the Land/Atmosphere Interface

17.15 Effects of Ice

17.16 Effects of Human Activities

17.17 Air Pollution and the Geosphere

17.18 Water Pollution and the Geosphere

17.19 Waste Disposal and the Geosphere

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 18 SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

18.1 Soil and Agriculture

18.2 Nature and Composition of Soil

18.3 Acid-Base and Ion Exchange Reactions in Soils

18.4 Macronutrients in Soil

18.5 Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Soil

18.6 Micronutrients in Soil

18.7 Fertilizers

18.8 Wastes and Pollutants in Soil

18.9 Soil Loss and Degradation

18.10 Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

18.11 Agriculture and Health

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 19 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

19.1 Introduction and History

19.2 Industrial Ecosystems

19.3 The Five Major Components of an Industrial Ecosystem

19.4 Industrial Metabolism

19.5 Levels of Materials Utilization

19.6 Links to Other Environmental Spheres

19.7 Consideration of Environmental Impacts in Industrial Ecology

19.8 Three Key Attributes: Energy, Materials, Diversity

19.9 Life Cycles: Expanding and Closing the Materials Loop

19.10 Life-Cycle Assessment

19.11 Consumable, Recyclable, and Service (Durable) Products

19.12 Design for Environment

19.13 Overview of an Integrated Industrial Ecosystem

19.14 The Kalundborg Example

19.15 Societal Factors and the Environmental Ethic

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 20 GREEN CHEMISTRY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The Key Concept of Atom Economy

20.3 Hazard Reduction

20.4 Feedstocks

20.5 Reagents

20.6 Media

20.7 The Special Importance of Solvents

20.8 Synthetic and Processing Pathways

20.9 The Role of Catalysts

20.10 Biological Alternatives

20.11 Applications of Green Chemistry

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 21 NATURE, SOURCES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Classification of Hazardous Substances and Wastes

21.3 Sources of Wastes

21.4 Flammable and Combustible Substances

21.5 Reactive Substances

21.6 Corrosive Substances

21.7 Toxic Substances

21.8 Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes

21.9 Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes

21.10 Physical and Chemical Properties of Hazardous Wastes

21.11 Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes

21.12 Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere

21.13 Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere

21.14 Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere

21.15 Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere

21.16 Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 22 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION,UTILIZATION, AND TREATMENT

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Waste Reduction and Minimization

22.3 Recycling

22.4 Physical Methods of Waste Treatment

22.5 Chemical Treatment: An Overview

22.6 Photolytic Reactions

22.7 Thermal Treatment Methods

22.8 Biodegradation of Wastes

22.9 Land Treatment and Composting

22.10 Preparation of Wastes for Disposal

22.11 Ultimate Disposal of Wastes

22.12 Leachate and Gas Emissions

22.13 In-Situ Treatment

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 23 TOXICOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

23.1 Introduction to Toxicology and Toxicological Chemistry

23.2 Dose-Response Relationships

23.3 Relative Toxicities

23.4 Reversibility and Sensitivity

23.5 Xenobiotic and Endogenous Substances

23.6 Toxicological Chemistry

23.7 Kinetic Phase and Dynamic Phase

23.8 Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Effects on the Immune

and Reproductive Systems

23.9 ATSDR Toxicological Profiles

23.10 Toxic Elements and Elemental Forms

23.11 Toxic Inorganic Compounds

23.12 Toxic Organometallic Compounds

23.13 Toxicological Chemistry of Organic Compounds

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 24 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, RESOURCES, AND ENERGY

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Minerals in the Geosphere

24.3 Extraction and Mining

24.4 Metals

24.5 Metal Resources and Industrial Ecology

24.6 Nonmetal Mineral Resources

24.7 Phosphates

24.8 Sulfur

24.9 Wood—a Major Renewable Resource

24.10 The Energy Problem

24.11 World Energy Resources

24.12 Energy Conservation

24.13 Energy Conversion Processes

24.14 Petroleum and Natural Gas

24.15 Coal

24.16 Nuclear Fission Power

24.17 Nuclear Fusion Power

24.18 Geothermal Energy

24.19 The Sun: an Ideal Energy Source

24.20 Energy from Biomass

24.21 Future Energy Sources

24.22 Extending Resources through the Practice of Industrial Ecology

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 25 FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

25.1 Nature and Importance of Chemical Analysis

25.2 The Chemical Analysis Process

25.3 Major Categories of Chemical Analysis

25.4 Error and Treatment of Data

25.5 Gravimetric Analysis

25.6 Volumetric Analysis: Titration

25.7 Spectrophotometric Methods

25.8 Electrochemical Methods of Analysis

25.9 Chromatography

25.10 Mass Spectrometry

25.11 Automated Analyses

25.12 Immunoassay Screening

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 26 ENVIRONMENTAL AND XENOBIOTICS ANALYSIS

26.1 Introduction to Environmental Chemical Analysis

26.2 Analysis of Water Samples

26.3 Classical Methods of Water Analysis

26.4 Instrumental Methods of Water Analysis

26.5 Analysis of Wastes and Solids

26.6 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure

26.7 Atmospheric Monitoring

26.8 Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics

Chapter Summary

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