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جوايزنوبل شيمي تا سال۲۰۰۵

جوايزنوبل شيمي تا سال2005Reviewed by محمد ابراهیمی on Aug 11Rating:

جوايزنوبل شيمي تا سال۲۰۰۵ برای مشاهده دریافت کننده گان جوایز نوبل شیمی تا سال ۲۰۰۵ به ادامه مطلب مراجعه کنید

In The Name of GOD

 

Nobel Prize in chemistry winners 1901-2004

Year Name work
۱۹۰۱ J.H.vant Hoff Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamic? and osmotic pressure in solutions.
۱۹۰۲

۱۹۰۱

E .Fischer Sugar and purine syntheses.
۱۹۰۳ S.Arrhenius Electrolytic theory of dissociation.
۱۹۰۴ W.ramsay Discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air and their place in the periodic system.
۱۹۰۵ A.Von.Baeyer Advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industtry through work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.
۱۹۰۶ H.Moissan Isolation of the element fluorine and development of the electric furnace.
۱۹۰۷ E.Buchner Biochemical researches and the discovery of cell-freefermention.
۱۹۰۸ E.Ratherford Investigations into the disintegration of the elements and the chemistry of radiactive substances.
۱۹۰۹ W.Ostwald Work on catalysis and investigations into the fundamental principlesgoverning chemical equilibria rates of reaction.
۱۹۱۰ O.Wallach Pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.
۱۹۱۱ Marie Curie Discovery of the elementsradium and polonium, theisolation of radium, and the stydy of thenature and compounds of this remarkable element.
۱۹۱۲ V.Grignard

P.sabatier

Discovery of the Grignard reagent.

Method of hydro genating organic compounds in the presece? of finely disintegrated metals.

۱۹۱۳ A.Werner Work on the linkage of atoms in molecules which has throwm new light on earlier investigations and opened? up new fileds of research especially in inorganic chemistry.
۱۹۱۴ T.W.Richards Accurate determination of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements.
۱۹۱۵ R.Willstatter Plant pigments, especially chlorlphyll.
۱۹۱۶ Not awarded *********************************
۱۹۱۷ Not awarded *********************************
۱۹۱۸ F.Haber The synthesis of ammonia from its elements.
۱۹۱۹ Not awarded *********************************
۱۹۲۰ W.Nernst Work in thermochemistry.
۱۹۲۱ F.Soddy Contributions to knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.
۱۹۲۲ F.W.Aston Discovery,by means of the mass spectrograph of isotopes in a number of non radioactive elements and for enunciation of the whole number rule.
۱۹۲۳ F.Pregl Invention of the method of microanalysis of oganic substances.
۱۹۲۴ Not award ***********************************
۱۹۲۵ R.Zsigmondy Demmonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions by methods which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry.
۱۹۲۶ T.Svedberg Work on disperse systems.
۱۹۲۷ H.Wieland Constitution of the bile acid and related substances.
۱۹۲۸ A.Windaus Constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.
۱۹۲۹ A.Harden Investigations on thefermentation of sugarsand fermentative enzymes.
۱۹۳۰ H.Fischer The costitution of haemin??????? and chlorophyll and especially for the synthesis of haemin.
۱۹۳۱ C.Bosch? F.Bergius The invention and development of chemical high pressure methods.
۱۹۳۲ I.Langmuir Discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.
۱۹۳۳ Not awarded *********************************
۱۹۳۴ H.C.Urey Discovery of heavy hydrogen.
۱۹۳۵ F.Joliot

Irene Joliot-Curie

Synthesis of new radioactive element
۱۹۳۶ P.Debye Contributions to knowledge of molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.
۱۹۳۷ W.N.Haworth

P.Karrer

Investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C .

Investigations of carotenoids,vitamins A andB2

۱۹۳۸ R.Kuhn Work on carotenoids and vitamins.
۱۹۳۹ A.F.J.Butenandt()

L.Ruzicka

Work on sexhormones.
۱۹۴۰ Not awarded ***********************************
۱۹۴۱ Not awarded ***********************************
۱۹۴۲ Not awarded ***********************************
۱۹۴۳ G.Hevesy Use ofisotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes.
۱۹۴۴ O.Hahn Discovery of the fissionof havy nuclei.
۱۹۴۵ A.J.Virtanen Research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry ,especially fodder preservation.
۱۹۴۶ J.B.Sumner

J.H.Northrop and W.M.Stanley

Discovery that enzymes can be crystallized.
۱۹۴۷ R.Robinson Investigations on especially the alkaloids.
۱۹۴۸ A.W.K.Tiselius Electrophoresis andadsorption analysis, especially for discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serumproteins.
۱۹۴۹ W.F.Giauque Contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures.
۱۹۵۰ O.Diels Discovery and development of the diene synthesis.
۱۹۵۱ E.M.McMillan

G.T.Seaborg

Discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.
۱۹۵۲ A.J.P.Martin Invention of partition chromatography.
۱۹۵۳ H.Staudinger Discoveries in thefield of macomolecular chemistry.
۱۹۵۴ L.Pauling, Research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to??
۱۹۵۵ V.du Vigneaud Biocemically important sulfur compounds.
۱۹۵۶ C.N.Hinshelwood

N.N.Semenov

The mechanism of chemical reactions.
۱۹۵۷ A.Todd Nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.
۱۹۵۸ F.Sanger The structure of proteins.
۱۹۵۹ J.Heyrovsky Discovery and development of the polarographic method of analysis.
۱۹۶۰ W.f.Libby Use of carbon 14 for age deermination in archeology,geology,geophysics and??
۱۹۶۱ M.Calvin Research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.
۱۹۶۲ J.C.Kendrew

M.f.Perutz

The structures of globular proeins.
۱۹۶۳ K.Ziegler The chemistry and technology of high polymers.
۱۹۶۴ Dorothy Crowfool Hodgkin Determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical subestances.
۱۹۶۵ R.B.Woodwar Outstanding achievements in organic synthesis.
۱۹۶۶ R.S.Mulliken Fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and?.
۱۹۶۷ M.Eigen(Gottingen)&R.G.W.Norris

(Cambridge)&G.Poter

Studies o extremly fast? chemical reaction.
۱۹۶۸ L.Onsager Thermodynamics.
۱۹۶۹ O.hassel(Oslo)&D.H.R.Barton Development of the concept of conformation and itsapplication in chemistry.
۱۹۷۰ L.F.Leloir Discovery of sugar nucleotides.
۱۹۷۱ G.Herzberg Contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geomety of molecules,?.
۱۹۷۲ C.B.Anfinsen

S.Moore&W.H.Stein

Concerning the connection between amino asid sequence and the biologically active conformation.

Contributions to the understandingbof the connection between chemical structureband catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.

۱۹۷۳ E.O.Fischer

G.Wilkinson

Pioneering work ,performed independently,on the chemistry of the organometallic so- called sandwich compounds.
۱۹۷۴ P.J.Flory Fundamental achievements both theoretical and experimental in the physical chemistry of macromolecules.
۱۹۷۵ J.W.Cornforth Astereochemistry of enzyme-catalysed reactions.
۱۹۷۶ W.N.Lipscomb Studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding.
۱۹۷۷ I.Prigogine Thermodynamics.
۱۹۷۸ P.Mitchell Contributions to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
۱۹۷۹ H.C.Brown

G.Witting

For their development of boron and phosphorus compounds?..
۱۹۸۰ P.Berg The biochemistry of nucleic acids?.
۱۹۸۱ W.Gilbert

F.Sanger

Quantum mechanical studies of chemical reactivity.
۱۹۸۲ K.*****ui

R.Hoffmann

Development of crystallographic electron microscopy and the structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.
۱۹۸۳ H.Taube Mechanisms of electron transfer reactions of metal complexes.
۱۹۸۴ R.B.Merrifield Development of methodologynfor the synthesis of peptides on a solid matrix.
۱۹۸۵ H.A.Hauptman

J.Karle

Outstandingachievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.
۱۹۸۶ D.R.Herschbach

Y.T.Lee

J.C.Polanyi

Contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
۱۹۸۷ D.J.Cram

J.M.Lehn

C.J.Pedersen

For their development and use of molecules with structure specific interactionsof high selectivity.
۱۹۸۸ j.Deisenhofer

R.Huber

H.Michel

Determination of the tree dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre
۱۹۸۹ S.Altman Discovery of the catalytic properties centre.
۱۹۹۰ E.J.Corey Development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.
۱۹۹۱ R.R.Ernest Contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nmr spectroscopy.
۱۹۹۲ R.A.Marcus Contributions to the theory of electrons transfer reactions in chemical systems.
۱۹۹۳ K.B.Mullis For his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based ,site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.
۱۹۹۴ G.A.Olah Contributions to carbocation chemistry.
۱۹۹۵ P.Crutzen

M.Molina(Massachusets Institute of Tecnology)

F.S.Rowland

Work in atmospheric chemistry. Particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.
۱۹۹۶ R.F.Curl

H.krot

Discovery of a new form of carbons, the fullerenes.
۱۹۹۷ P.D.Boyer

J.Walker

J.C.Skou

their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

he first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase.

۱۹۹۸ W.Kohn

J.Pople

development of the density-functional theory

development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

۱۹۹۹ A.zewail studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.
۲۰۰۰ A.J.Heeger

A.G.Macdiarmid

H.Shirakawa

discovery and development of conductive polymers.
۲۰۰۱ W.S.Knowles

?K.B.Sharpless

R.Noyori

for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions

his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions

۲۰۰۲ J.B.Fenn

K.Tanaka

K.Wuthrich

development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.
۲۰۰۳ P.Agre

R.Mackinnon

 the discovery of water channels

for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

۲۰۰۴ A.Ciechanover

A.Hershko

I.Roze

discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
۲۰۰۵

 

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