خانه / آموزش / آزمایشگاه شیمی / تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاه

تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاه

تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاهReviewed by محمد ابراهیمی on Oct 15Rating:

تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاه

تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاه در این قسمت نحوه تهیه شناساگرهای معمول در آزمایشگاههای شیمی را به ترتیب حروف الفبا می توانید بیابید. همچنین این نکته نیز قابل ذکر است که برخی شناساگرها برای تیتراسیون EDTA استفاده میشوند و برخی دیگر برای تیتراسیونهای Redox و برخی تیتراسیونهای برجذب. که در داخل پرانتز پس از نام شناساگر به آن اشاره شده است.

A

Amido black 10 B (redox)
dissolve 0.2 g in 100 ml of water
color change = yellowish-brown to blue
Alizarin
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol.
pH =10.1 – 12.1; color change = red to purple
Alizarin yellow
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =10.0 – 12.1; color change = light yellow to brownish yellow
Alizarin sulphonic acid Na salt
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. water or in 100 ml 1:1 ethanol and water.
pH =4.3 – 6.3; color change = yellow to violet
Alkali blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol.
pH =9.4 – 14.0; color change = violet to pink

B

۲٫۲’Bipyridin (iron(II) complex (redox)
dissolve 0.695 g of FeSO4.7H2O and 1.171 g of 2.2′-bipyridin in 100 ml of water
color change = pale blue to red
Brillant cresyl blue (redox)
dissolve 0.5 g in 100 ml of water or ethanol (96 %)
color change = blue to colorless
Brilliant green
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =0.0 – 2.6; color change = yellow to green
Bromochlorophenol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.69 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =3.0 – 4.6; color change = yellow to blue-violet
Bromocresol green
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.58 ml of 0.1Msodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =3.8 – 5.4; color change = yellow to blue
Bromocresol purple
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.4g in 0.74 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =5.2 – 6.8; color change = yellow to purple
Bromophenol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.6 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =3.0 – 4.6; color change = yellow to blue-violet
Bromophenol red
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.94 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =5.2 – 6.8; color change = orange yellow to purple
Bromothymol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol.
Bromo-oxylenol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol.
pH =5.7 – 7.5; color change = orange yellow to blue

C

Cacotheline
saturated
color change = yellow to red-violet
Calcon or Solochrome Dark Blue (metal-ion EDTA)
sodium 1-(2- hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulphonate, Colour I ndex No.202; also called Eriochrome Blue Black R.
Dissolve 0.2g of the dyestuff in 50ml. of methanol.
The colour change is from pink to pure blue.
Calmagite
۱-(۱-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-phenylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid (IX) (metal-ion EDTA)
Can be substituted for Eriochrome Black T without change in the experimental procedures for calcium and magnesium.It has same colour change, which is clearer and sharper, and aqueous solutions of the indicator are almost stable indefinitely.
Dissolve 0.05g of calmagiite in 100ml. of water. The indicator is stable for at least 12 months when stored in a polythene bottle and in the dark.
Chlorophenol red
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.94 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =4.8 – 6.4; color change = yellow to purple
Congo red
Dissolve 0.2g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =3.0 – 5.2; color change = blue to orange-yellow
Cresol purple
Dissolve 0.04g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.86 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =7.4 – 9.0; color change = yellow to purple
Cresol red
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 50% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 1.05 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =7.0 – 8.8; color change = yellow to purple
Cresol red
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 1.05 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =0.2 – 1.8; color change = red to yellow
m-Cresol purple
Dissolve 0.04g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 1.05 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =1.2 – 2.8; color change = red to yellow
Crystal violet
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 70% ethanol.
pH =0.8 – 2.6; color change = yellow to blue-violet

D

Dibromopyrogallol sulphone phthalein (VIII) (metal-ion EDTA) or Bromopyrogallol Red
Dissolve 0.05g of the reagent in 100ml. of 50% ethanol.
The indicator is coloured orange-yellow in strongly acid solutions,; claret red in nearly neutral solutions; and violet to blue in basic solutions.
Dichlorofluorescein: (adsorption)
Dissolve 0.1g in 60 – 70 % ethanol, or
Dissolve 0.1g of dichlorofluoroceinate in 100ml water.
۲٫۶-Dichlorophenolin-dophenol sodiumsalt (dihydrate) (redox)
dissolve 0.02 g in 100 ml of water
color change = blue to colorless
Di-iododimethylfluorescein:
(adsorption) Dissolve 1g in 70 5 ethanol.
۴-(Dimethylamino) azobenzene
Dissolve 0.1 to 1.5 g. in 100 ml. of 90% ethanol.
pH =2.9 – 4.0; color change = red to yellow-orange
۳٫۳′-Dimethylnahthidine(4.4′-Diamino-3.3-dimethyl-1.1′-binaphthaline) (redox)
dissolve 1.0 g in 100 ml of glacial acetic acid
color change = purple-red to colorless
N,N-Dimethyl-1.4-phenylenediammonium dichloride (redox)
dissolve 0.02 g in 100 ml of water
color change = dark-blue to colorless
۲,۵-Dinitrophenol
Dissolve 0.05 to 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 70% ethanol.
pH =4.0 – 5.8; color change = colorless to yellow
۲,۴-Dinitrophenol
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 70% ethanol.
pH =2.8 – 4.7; color change = colorless to yellow
Diphenylamine:
Dissolve 1g in 100 ml conc. H2SO4
color change = blue-violet to colorless
Diphenylamine-4-sulfonic acid barium salt (redox)
Dissolve 0.2g in 100 ml water
color change = red-violet to colorless
Diphenylamine-p-sulphonic acid (Na salt):
(redox) Dissolve 0.2g in 100 ml water.
Diphenylbenzidine:
(redox) Dissolve 1g in 100 ml conc.H2SO4
color change = violet to colorless
Diphenylcarbazide: (adsorption)
Dissolve 0.1g in 100 ml ethanol.
Diphenylcarbazone: (adsorption)
Dissolve 0.1g in 100 ml ethanol or iso-propyl alcohol.

E

Eosin bluish
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =1.4 – 2.4; color change = colorless to pink fluorescence
Eosin: (adsorption)
Dssolve 0.1g in 100ml 70 % ethanol, or 0.1g of the sodium salt in 100 ml water.
Eosin yellowish
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =0.0 – 3.0; color change = yellow to green fluorescence
Epsilon blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =11.6 – 13.0; color change = orange to violet
Eriochrome Bkack T (metal-ion EDTA)
Sodium 1-(1-hydroxy-2-naphthalyzo)-6-nitro-2-naphthol-4-sulphonate (1); also known as Solochrome Black T or WDFA or No. 2 in the Colour Index. Not recommended for titration of solutions more acidic than Ph 6.5.
Dissolve 0.2 g of the dyestuff in 15ml. of ethanolamine and add 5ml of absolute ethanol to reduce the viscosity; the reagent is stable for several months.
A 0.4% solution of the pure dye in methanol may last for about a month.
Colour change is from blue to red.
Eriochrome Red B
sodium salt of 4-(2-hydroxy-4-sulpho-1-naphthylazo)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (IX)—a pyrazolone azo-B-naphthol dyestuff. (metal-ion EDTA)
Dissolve 0.1g of the dyestuff in 50ml, ethanol. It is stable indefinitely.
The colour change from pink to pale yellow is almost instantaneous at about 80oC.
Erythrosin B
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =0.0 – 3.6; color change = orange to red

F G H I J K L

Fast Sulphon Black F (metal ion EDTA)
Sodium salt of 1-hydrovy-8-(2-hydroxynaphthylazo)-2-(solphonaphtylazo)-3,6-disulphonic acid (V)
The indicator solution is 0.5% solution in water.
Specific colour change for copper is from magenta to pale blue to bright green.
Ferric indicator: (adsorption)
Use a saturated Ammonium Ferric sulphate soln. (~ 40%), add a few drops of 6M nitric acid, and use 1 ml for each titration.
Ferroin: (redox)
Make a 0.025M in water. or Dissolve 0.7g FeSO4.7H2O and 1.5g 1,10 o-phenanthroline in 100 ml water. color change = blue to orange-red
Fluorescein: (adsorption)
Dissolve 0.2g in 100 ml 70 % alcohol, or
Dissolve 0.2g of sodium fluorocienate in 100 ml water.
HHSNNA (metal-ion EDTA)
See Patton and Reeder’s
Indigo carmine
Dissolve 0.25g. in 100 ml. of 50% ethanol, or dissolve 1g in 100ml of water.
pH =11.5 – 13.0; color change = blue to yellow
Indigo carmine (Indigo disulfonate disodium salt) (redox)
Dissolve 0.5g in 100 ml water
color change = blue to yellowish
Litmus
Dissolve 4g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =5.0 – 8.0; color change = red to blue
Note on Litmus:You can purify the commercial litmus as follows: Digest 10g. of the litmus with 35ml.of rectified spirit on a water bath for about 1 hr and decant the alcohol.; repeat this process twice. Extract the residue several times with water and allow to stand for several days. Decant or siphon off the clear extract. This is of suitable concentration for most purposes.
Bromo-cresol purple or Bromo-thymol blue are excellent substitutes for litmus.
Azolitmin is the pure litmus colouring matter. Dissolve 0.1g. in 100ml of water.

M

Malachite green oxalate
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =0.0 – 2.0; color change = yellow to green-blue
N-Methlydiphenylamine-p-solphonic acid, (Na salt): (redox)
Dissolve 0.1g in 100 ml water.
Methylene blue (redox)
Dissolve 0.1 to 0.5g in 100 ml water
Methyl green
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of water.
pH =0.1 – 2.3; color change = yellow to blue
Methyl orange
Dissolve 0.05g. of the sodium salt in 100 mls. of water, add 8 mls..of 0.1M hydrochloric acid, and filter if necessary, or
Dissolve 0.05g. of the free acid in 100 ml. water, and filter the solution if a precipitate forms.
pH =3.1 – 4.4; color change is pink/red towards yellow-orange
Screened methyl orange
Dissolve 1g. of methyl orange and 1.4g. of xylene cyanol FF in 200ml. water and make up to 500 ml. vol. with ethanol. The purpose of a screened or mixed indicator is to produce a more pronounced colour change at the end point. These types of indicators consist of either a mixture of two indicators or a mixture of an indicator and an inert dye. It changes colour at pH 3.8 — 4.1 from violet to green.
Methyl red
Dissolve 0.1g. of the Na salt in 100ml. of water, or dissolve in 30ml. of alcohol and dilute to 100ml. vol. with water.
pH =4.4 – 6.2; color change = red to yellow-orange
Methyl violet
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol.
pH =0.1 – 2.7; color change = yellow to violet
Methyl yellow Dissolve 0.1g. of the indicator in 100 ml of alcohol.
Mixed indicator
Dissolve 0.2g of methyl red and 0.1g of methyl blue or bromocresol green in 100 ml 95% ethanol
pH =4.3 – 5.2; color change = green to pink(ph 4.5)
Murexide (metal-ion EDTA)
This is the Ammonium salt of purpuric acid.
Suspend 0.5g of the powdered dyestuff in water, shake thoroughly and allow to settle. The saturated supernatant is used as the indicator.
The colour change is towards a blue endpoint.

N

۱-Naphtolphthalein
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol.
pH =7.1 – 8.3; color change = brownish to blue-green
Neutral red
Dissolve 0.3g. in 100 ml. of 70% ethanol.
pH =6.8 – 8.0; color change = blue-red to orange-yellow
Neutral red (redox)
Dissolve 0.5g in 100 ml of 95% ethanol
color change = violet-red to colorless
Nile blue (sulphate) (redox)
Dissolve 0.1g in 100 ml water
color change = blue-red to colorless
۳-Nitrophenol
Dissolve 0.3g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol, or 0.08 g in 100 ml water.
pH =6.6 – 8.6; color change = colorless to yellow-orange
۴-Nitrophenol
Dissolve 0.2g. in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol, or 0.08g in 100 ml water.
pH =5.4 – 6.8; color change = yellow to violet

O P

Patton and Reeders indicator (metal-ion EDTA)
۲-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxy-4-sulpho-1-naphthylazo)-3-naphthoic acid (111)
Also known by the abbreviated name HHSNNA.
The dyestuff is thoroughly mixed with 100 times its weight of sodium sulphate, and 1g of this mix is used for each titration.
Used in the direct titration of calcium, particularly in the presence of magnesium, pH range 12-14.
A sharp colour change is obtained from wine red to pure blue.Phenolphthalein
Dissolve 0.5 g. of the reagent in 50ml.of alcohol and add 50ml of water with stirring. Filter if a precipitate forms or
Dissolve 1g. of the dry indicator in 80 mls.ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (cellosolve) b.p.135oC, and dilute to 100ml. with distilled water.: the loss by evaporation is less by this preparation.
Phenolphetalein
Dissolve 1g. in 100 ml. of Ethanol.
Phenol red
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 1.13 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml.
pH =6.4 – 8.2; color change = yellow to red-violet
Pentamethoxytriphenyl carbinol
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 95% ethanol
pH =1.2 – 3.2; color change = red to colorless
۱٫۱۰-Phenanthroline (monohydrate) (redox)
Dissolve 0.695 g of FeSO4 x 7H2O and 1.487 g of 1.10-Phenanthroline in 100 ml of water
color change = pale-blue to red
N-Phenylanthranilic acid: (redox)
Dissolve 0.1 g in 5 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
color change = purple-red to colorless
Picric acid
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 20% ethanol
pH =0.2 – 1.0; color change = colorlass to yellow
Pyrocatechol Violet
Pyrocatechol sulphone phthalein (VII); Catechol violet. (metal-ion EDTA)
Dissolve 0.1g of the dyestuyy in 100ml.of water. This solution is stable for several weeks.
Colour change is progressive, from yellow yo blue to green.

Q R S

Quinaldine red
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 60% ethanol
pH =1.4 – 3.2; color change = colorless to pink
Rhodamine: (adsorption)
Dissolve 0.05 g in 100 ml water.
Safranin (redox)
Dissolve 0.5g in 100 ml water
color change = blue-violet(acidic),brown (alkaline) to colorless

T

۴,۵,۶,۷-Tetrabromo-phenolphthalein
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 95% ethanol
pH =7.0 – 8.0; color change = colorless to purple
۲٫۲′:۶٫۲″-Terpyridine (iron(II) complex) (redox)
Dissolve 0.232 g FeSO4 x 7H2O and 0.389 g of 2.2′:6.2-terpyridine in 100 ml of water
color change = pale-blue to red
Tertrazine: (redox)
Dissolve 0.5g in water and use 4 drops per titration.
Thionine (redox)
Dissolve 0.5g in 100 ml of 95% ethanol
color change = violet to colorless
Titan yellow
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 20% ethanol
pH =12.0 – 13.0; color change = yellow to red
Thymol blue
Dissolve 0.04g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.86 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =8.0 – 9.6; color change = yellow to blue
Thymol blue
Dissolve 0.04g. in 100 ml. of 20% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.86 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =1.2 – 2.8; color change = red to yellow
Thymolphthalein
Dissolve 0.1 g in 100 ml of 50% ethanol
pH =9.3 – 10.5; color change = yellow to red
Thymolphthalexone
Thymolphthalein complexone (metal-ion EDTA)
۳,۳-bis-[n,n-(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl] thymolphthalein (X)
Prepare a 0.5% solution in ethanol.alternatively, a finely ground mixture 1:100 with AR potassium nitrate may be used.
Blue to colourless or slight pink in alkaline medium.
Tropaeolin O
Dissolve 0.1g. of the solid in 100 ml of water.
Tropaeolin OO
Dissolve 0.1g. of the solid in 100 ml of water.
Universal indicator
Dissolve 0.04g of methyl red, 0.02g of methyl orange, 0.02g of phenolphthalein, 0.10g of thymol blue and 0.08g of bromothymol blue in 100 ml of 95% ethanol. Color change is red-orange-yellow-green (ph 7) –blue-indigo-violet.

U V W X Y Z

Variamine Blue B (metal-ion EDTA)
۴-methoxy-4-amino-diphenylamine
The indicator solution is a 1% solution of the base in water. Ferric complex with EDTA – sharp change in redox potential – colourless to violet blue complex.
Variamine blue salt B (redox)
Dissolve 1.0 g in 100 ml of water or grind with sodium chloride or sodium sulfate anhydrous trituration
color change = blue-violet(acidic),yellow (alkaline) to colorless
p-Xylenol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 50% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.98 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =1.2 – 2.8; color change = red to yellow
p-Xylenol blue
Dissolve 0.1g. in 100 ml. of 50% ethanol, or dissolve 0.04g in 0.98 ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide and make up to 100 ml with water.
pH =8.0 – 9.6; color change = yellow to blue

چسب نشاسته يا Starch : مقدار ۱ گرم از نشاسته را با ۱۰ ميلي گرم يديد جيوه قرمز مخلوط كرده و در حداقل آب سرد حل كنيد تا حالت چسب مانند بخود بگيرد. بعد از آن ۲۰۰ ميلي ليتر آب جوش به آن اضافه كرده و به مدت ۱ دقيقه محلول را بجوشانيد و همزمان هم بزنيد سپس بگذاريد تا سرد شود. دقت كنيد كه هميشه از محلول رويي كه شفاف است استفاده كنيد. بهتر است چسب نشاسته هميشه تازه تهيه شود. اگر يديد جيوه قرمز نداشته باشيد زياد مشكلي بوجود نمي آورد. 

امتیاز دهید:

1 ستاره2 ستاره3 ستاره4 ستاره5 ستاره (امتیازی داده نشده)
Loading...
برای عضویت درکانال تلگرام جم شیمی روی تصویر کلیک کنید

پاسخ دهید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

محدودیت زمانی،روی فلش کلیک کنید تا کد جدید تولید شود