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جوايزنوبل شيمي تا سال2005

جوايزنوبل شيمي تا سال2005 برای مشاهده دریافت کننده گان جوایز نوبل شیمی تا سال 2005 به ادامه مطلب مراجعه کنید

In The Name of GOD

 

Nobel Prize in chemistry winners 1901-2004

Year Name work
1901 J.H.vant Hoff Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamic? and osmotic pressure in solutions.
1902

1901

E .Fischer Sugar and purine syntheses.
1903 S.Arrhenius Electrolytic theory of dissociation.
1904 W.ramsay Discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air and their place in the periodic system.
1905 A.Von.Baeyer Advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industtry through work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.
1906 H.Moissan Isolation of the element fluorine and development of the electric furnace.
1907 E.Buchner Biochemical researches and the discovery of cell-freefermention.
1908 E.Ratherford Investigations into the disintegration of the elements and the chemistry of radiactive substances.
1909 W.Ostwald Work on catalysis and investigations into the fundamental principlesgoverning chemical equilibria rates of reaction.
1910 O.Wallach Pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.
1911 Marie Curie Discovery of the elementsradium and polonium, theisolation of radium, and the stydy of thenature and compounds of this remarkable element.
1912 V.Grignard

P.sabatier

Discovery of the Grignard reagent.

Method of hydro genating organic compounds in the presece? of finely disintegrated metals.

1913 A.Werner Work on the linkage of atoms in molecules which has throwm new light on earlier investigations and opened? up new fileds of research especially in inorganic chemistry.
1914 T.W.Richards Accurate determination of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements.
1915 R.Willstatter Plant pigments, especially chlorlphyll.
1916 Not awarded *********************************
1917 Not awarded *********************************
1918 F.Haber The synthesis of ammonia from its elements.
1919 Not awarded *********************************
1920 W.Nernst Work in thermochemistry.
1921 F.Soddy Contributions to knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.
1922 F.W.Aston Discovery,by means of the mass spectrograph of isotopes in a number of non radioactive elements and for enunciation of the whole number rule.
1923 F.Pregl Invention of the method of microanalysis of oganic substances.
1924 Not award ***********************************
1925 R.Zsigmondy Demmonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions by methods which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry.
1926 T.Svedberg Work on disperse systems.
1927 H.Wieland Constitution of the bile acid and related substances.
1928 A.Windaus Constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.
1929 A.Harden Investigations on thefermentation of sugarsand fermentative enzymes.
1930 H.Fischer The costitution of haemin??????? and chlorophyll and especially for the synthesis of haemin.
1931 C.Bosch? F.Bergius The invention and development of chemical high pressure methods.
1932 I.Langmuir Discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.
1933 Not awarded *********************************
1934 H.C.Urey Discovery of heavy hydrogen.
1935 F.Joliot

Irene Joliot-Curie

Synthesis of new radioactive element
1936 P.Debye Contributions to knowledge of molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.
1937 W.N.Haworth

P.Karrer

Investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C .

Investigations of carotenoids,vitamins A andB2

1938 R.Kuhn Work on carotenoids and vitamins.
1939 A.F.J.Butenandt()

L.Ruzicka

Work on sexhormones.
1940 Not awarded ***********************************
1941 Not awarded ***********************************
1942 Not awarded ***********************************
1943 G.Hevesy Use ofisotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes.
1944 O.Hahn Discovery of the fissionof havy nuclei.
1945 A.J.Virtanen Research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry ,especially fodder preservation.
1946 J.B.Sumner

J.H.Northrop and W.M.Stanley

Discovery that enzymes can be crystallized.
1947 R.Robinson Investigations on especially the alkaloids.
1948 A.W.K.Tiselius Electrophoresis andadsorption analysis, especially for discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serumproteins.
1949 W.F.Giauque Contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures.
1950 O.Diels Discovery and development of the diene synthesis.
1951 E.M.McMillan

G.T.Seaborg

Discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.
1952 A.J.P.Martin Invention of partition chromatography.
1953 H.Staudinger Discoveries in thefield of macomolecular chemistry.
1954 L.Pauling, Research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to??
1955 V.du Vigneaud Biocemically important sulfur compounds.
1956 C.N.Hinshelwood

N.N.Semenov

The mechanism of chemical reactions.
1957 A.Todd Nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.
1958 F.Sanger The structure of proteins.
1959 J.Heyrovsky Discovery and development of the polarographic method of analysis.
1960 W.f.Libby Use of carbon 14 for age deermination in archeology,geology,geophysics and??
1961 M.Calvin Research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.
1962 J.C.Kendrew

M.f.Perutz

The structures of globular proeins.
1963 K.Ziegler The chemistry and technology of high polymers.
1964 Dorothy Crowfool Hodgkin Determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical subestances.
1965 R.B.Woodwar Outstanding achievements in organic synthesis.
1966 R.S.Mulliken Fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and?.
1967 M.Eigen(Gottingen)&R.G.W.Norris

(Cambridge)&G.Poter

Studies o extremly fast? chemical reaction.
1968 L.Onsager Thermodynamics.
1969 O.hassel(Oslo)&D.H.R.Barton Development of the concept of conformation and itsapplication in chemistry.
1970 L.F.Leloir Discovery of sugar nucleotides.
1971 G.Herzberg Contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geomety of molecules,?.
1972 C.B.Anfinsen

S.Moore&W.H.Stein

Concerning the connection between amino asid sequence and the biologically active conformation.

Contributions to the understandingbof the connection between chemical structureband catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.

1973 E.O.Fischer

G.Wilkinson

Pioneering work ,performed independently,on the chemistry of the organometallic so- called sandwich compounds.
1974 P.J.Flory Fundamental achievements both theoretical and experimental in the physical chemistry of macromolecules.
1975 J.W.Cornforth Astereochemistry of enzyme-catalysed reactions.
1976 W.N.Lipscomb Studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding.
1977 I.Prigogine Thermodynamics.
1978 P.Mitchell Contributions to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
1979 H.C.Brown

G.Witting

For their development of boron and phosphorus compounds?..
1980 P.Berg The biochemistry of nucleic acids?.
1981 W.Gilbert

F.Sanger

Quantum mechanical studies of chemical reactivity.
1982 K.*****ui

R.Hoffmann

Development of crystallographic electron microscopy and the structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.
1983 H.Taube Mechanisms of electron transfer reactions of metal complexes.
1984 R.B.Merrifield Development of methodologynfor the synthesis of peptides on a solid matrix.
1985 H.A.Hauptman

J.Karle

Outstandingachievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.
1986 D.R.Herschbach

Y.T.Lee

J.C.Polanyi

Contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
1987 D.J.Cram

J.M.Lehn

C.J.Pedersen

For their development and use of molecules with structure specific interactionsof high selectivity.
1988 j.Deisenhofer

R.Huber

H.Michel

Determination of the tree dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre
1989 S.Altman Discovery of the catalytic properties centre.
1990 E.J.Corey Development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.
1991 R.R.Ernest Contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nmr spectroscopy.
1992 R.A.Marcus Contributions to the theory of electrons transfer reactions in chemical systems.
1993 K.B.Mullis For his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based ,site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.
1994 G.A.Olah Contributions to carbocation chemistry.
1995 P.Crutzen

M.Molina(Massachusets Institute of Tecnology)

F.S.Rowland

Work in atmospheric chemistry. Particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.
1996 R.F.Curl

H.krot

Discovery of a new form of carbons, the fullerenes.
1997 P.D.Boyer

J.Walker

J.C.Skou

their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

he first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase.

1998 W.Kohn

J.Pople

development of the density-functional theory

development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

1999 A.zewail studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.
2000 A.J.Heeger

A.G.Macdiarmid

H.Shirakawa

discovery and development of conductive polymers.
2001 W.S.Knowles

?K.B.Sharpless

R.Noyori

for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions

his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions

2002 J.B.Fenn

K.Tanaka

K.Wuthrich

development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.
2003 P.Agre

R.Mackinnon

 the discovery of water channels

for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

2004 A.Ciechanover

A.Hershko

I.Roze

discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
2005

 


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